Chapter 7 Outline
- Encoding – Forming Memory Code.
- Storage – Maintaining Encoded Information in Memory over Time.
- Retrieval – Recovering Information from Memory Stores.
- Forgetting is due to deficiencies in any of 3 Processes in Memory.
- Encoding: Getting Information into Memory
- Attention – Focusing Awareness on a narrowed range of Stimuli or Events.
ii. Focusing your attention in 2 or more places at once causes large reduction in memory performance and motor performance.
- Levels of Processing
ii. Phonemic Encoding = Intermediate Processing - Emphasizes what a word sounds like.
iii. Semantic Encoding = Deep Processing – Emphasizes the meaning of Verbal Input.
iv. Levels-of-Processing Theory – Proposes that deeper levels of processing result in Longer-Lasting Memory codes.
1. Deeper Processing leads to Enhanced Memory
- Enriching Encoding
ii. Imagery – Creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered.
1. Easier to form Images of Concrete Objects instead of Abstract Objects.
iii. Dual-Coding Theory – Memory is Enhanced by Forming Semantic and Visual codes, since either can lead to Recall.
iv. Self-Referent Coding – Deciding how or whether Information is Personally Relevant.
- Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory
- Sensory Memory – Preserves Memory in its Original Sensory form for a Brief Time, Usually only a Fraction of a Second.
- Short-Term Memory (STM) – A Limited-Capacity Store that can Maintain Unrehearsed Information for up to about 20 Seconds.
- Rehearsal – The Process of Repetitively Verbalizing or Thinking about the Information.
- Capacity of Storage
ii. Chunk – A Group of Familiar Stimuli Stored as a Single Unit.
1. Storing Information in Similar Chunks helps for Recall.
- Short-Term Memory as “Working Memory”
1. Phonological Loop – Facilitate the Acquisition of Language.
2. Visuospatial Sketchpad – Permits people to Temporarily Hold and Manipulate Visual Images.
3. Central Executive System – Controls Deploying, Switching, and Dividing Attention.
4. Episodic Buffer – Temporary Limited-Capacity storage for Integrating Working Memory to Long-Term Memory.
- Long-Term Memory (LTM) – An Unlimited Capacity Store that can hold Information over Lengthy Periods of Time.
ii. Flashbulb Memories – Usually Vivid and Detailed Recollections of Momentous Events.
1. Often Inaccurate Memories.
- Knowledge Represented & Organized in Memory
1. Greatly Increases Memory Recall by Grouping/Charting Information.
ii. People “Cluster” Items that are Similar to each other to remember them.
iii. Schema – An Organized Cluster of Knowledge about a Particular Object or Event Abstracted from Previous Experience with the Object or Event.
1. People are more likely to Remember things that are Consistent with their Schemas than Things that are not.
iv. Semantic Network – Consists of Nodes Representing Concepts, Joined Together by Pathways that Link Related Concepts.
1. Related Words are Easier to remember as how closely related they are.
v. Parallel Distributed Processing Models (PDP) – Cognitive Processes Depend on Patterns of Activation in Highly Interconnected Computational Networks that Resemble Neural Networks.
1. Remembering regarding Patterns across a Network.
- Retrieval: Getting Information out of Memory
- Cues to Aid Retrieval
1. Partial Recollections often lead in the Right Direction.
ii. Misinformation Effect – Occurs when Participants Recall of an Event they Witnessed is Altered by Introducing Misleading Post-Event Information.
iii. Imagination Inflation – A few moments of belief that a person has had an experience they haven’t allows them to make up details that didn’t occur.
iv. Sometimes Advertising Accurate Information can Lead to belief in Inaccurate Information.
1. Advertising that “Advil is good for you heart is false” after a few days people believe “Advil’s are good for your Heart.”
- Source Monitoring & Reality Monitoring
ii. Source Monitoring – Involves Making Attributions about the Origins of Memories.
iii. Source Monitoring Error – Occurs when a Memory Derived from one Source is Misattributed to Another Source.
iv. Reality Monitoring – Process of Deciding Whether Memories are Based on External Sources (One’s Perception of Actual Events) Or Internal Sources (One’s Thoughts and Imaginations.)
- Forgetting: When Memory Lapses
- Hermann Ebbinghaus
ii. Forgetting Curve – Graphs Retention and Forgetting Over Time.
1. The More Meaningful the Material, the Slower the Forgetting Curve.
- Measures of Forgetting
ii. Recall – Measure of Retention Requires Subjects to Reproduce Information from an Array of Options.
iii. Recognition – Measure of Retention Requires Subjects to Select Previously Learned Information from an Array of options.
iv. Relearning – Measure of Retention Requires a Subject to Memorize Information a Second Time to Determine How Much Time or How Many Practice Trials are Saved by Having Learned it Before.
- Why We Forget
1. PsuedoForgetting – You don’t learn something well due to a lack of Attention.
1. Decay Theory – Forgetting Occurs because Memory Traces Fade with Time.
1. Interference Theory – People Forget Information because of Competition from other Material.
2. Retroactive Inference – Occurs when New Information Impairs the Retention of Previously Learned Information.
3. Proactive Interference – Occurs when Previously Learned Information Interferes with the Retention of New Information.
iv. Retrieval Failure
1. Encoding Specificity Principle – The Value of a Retrieval Cue Depends on How Well it Corresponds to the Memory Code.
2. Transfer-Appropriate Processing – Occurs when the Initial Processing of Information is Similar to the Type of Processing Required by the Subsequent Measure of Retention.
v. Motivated Forgetting
1. Repression – Freud Theory – Refers to keeping Distressing Thoughts and Feelings Buried in the Unconscious.
- Recovered Memory Controversy
- Many People are Coming out with Stories of Abuse as Children that has been Repressed for years.
- Recovered Memories are Usually Not very Accurate.
- False memories can be Conjured by Suggestibility and Imagination Inflation.
- But Some Claims are True and Accurate.
- All the Controversy goes to Show that our Memory is Unreliable some of the Time.
- Physiology of Memory
- Eric Kandel
ii. Synapses Become closer together & Stronger.
- Adrenal Hormones Effect Memory Storage by Modulating Activity in the Amygdala.
- Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) – A Long-Lasting Increase in Neural Excitability at Synapses Along a Specific Neural Pathway.
- Long-Term Depression (LTD) - A Long-Lasting Decrease in Neural Excitability at Synapses Along a Specific Neural Pathway.
- Richard Thompson
- Anatomy of Memory
- Retrograde Amnesia – Involves the Loss of Memories for Events that Occurred prior to the Onset of Amnesia.
- Anterograde Amnesia – The Loss of Memories for Events that Occur after the Onset of Amnesia.
- Hippocampus Accounts for much Long-Term Memory through Consolidation.
- Consolidation – A Hypothetical Process Involving the Gradual Conversion of Information into Durable Memory Codes Stored in Long-Term Memory.
- Amygdala seems to be Critical for Formation of Learned Fears.
- Memory Takes Place all over the Brain.
- Systems & Types of Memory
- Non-Declarative Memory System – Houses Memory for Actions, Skills, Conditioned Responses, and Emotional Responses.
- Declarative Memory System – Handles Factual Information.
- Endel Tulving
1. Like an Autobiography.
ii. Semantic Memory System – General Knowledge that is not tied to the Time when the Information was Learned.
1. Like an Encyclopedia.
- Prospective Vs. Retrospective Memory
1. Cues Make it Easier to Remember Prospective Tasks.
ii. Retrospective Memory – Remembering Events from the Past or Previously Learned Information.